Viticulture is the set of agronomic techniques used to cultivate vines. From the planting of vines to their removal, viticulture includes every aspect of the life of grape plants. Cultivation of vineyards is one of the most important and essential parts of the wine making process. In fact it is not possible to make a good wine without a careful and accurate cultivation of grapes. The best wine producers are the ones who cultivate their own grapes. Vine is a plant that must be cared in a balanced and lasting way. The land where it is cultivated cannot and must not be exaggeratedly exploited, in order to avoid its impoverishment, whereas the orientation towards organic farming is getting more and more appreciated and looked for. The factors which influence the growth and the health of the plant are many: from the type of soil, to the quantity of precipitations which fall, from the solar radiation, to the quality of the plant itself. Each factor is as important as the others and each one must be respected, evaluated and taken care of down to the smallest detail.
Viticulture: the importance of grape cultivation
As we said, the factors influencing the cultivation of vines are many and viticulture must take into consideration all of them. In order grapes and the final product, that is wine, to be qualitatively perfect and quantitatively abundant, every single aspect of vine cultivation must be taken care of.
Vine is in fact a pretty sensitive plant. It is affected by climate and by different weather conditions. It fears excessive heat and spring frosts, it needs optimal light and low levels of rainfall. The areas that meet all these requirements are found, indicatively, in latitude ranges between 30 and 50° north and 30 and 40° south. However, there are significant areas excluded for various reasons.
Heat plays a very important role for vines. In fact, temperatures which are too high, or too low, do not allow vines to proceed in their vegetative cycle. Also air temperature range can help or hinder vine growth and development. A high temperature range between night and day temperatures helps to ensure the best results.
Light, moisture and rain
Light is very important for the life cycle of heliophilous plants, such as vines. This plant, in fact, loves positions exposed to the sun and areas where sunny days are longer than cloudy and rainy ones. The vine in fact is a plant that needs many hours of light for its vegetative and reproductive functions.
Compared to heat, vine is less sensitive to water needs. Those who know viticulture know very well that vine does not like to be cultivated in humid and rainy areas, or, on the contrary, too humid. Water supply is also important. It must not be too excessive (otherwise parasite proliferations could occur) and the grape’s juices would be diluted too much, but it must not be too scarce either. Therefore balance in this case as well. Moreover, the type of soil influences the availability of water for plants.
Soil and its disposition influence viticulture. Both for the supply of water resources and for their composition and position. Drained and hilly soils are the most favorable for viticulture, even though they lead to less water availability.
Viticolture: Corvina, Corvinone, Rondinella, Oseleta e Negrara
Every vine requires particular attention according to the type it belongs to. Grapes used in the production of Amarone della Valpolicella and Recioto della Valpolicella are no exception. We are talking about: Corvina, Corvinone, Rondinella, Oseleta and Negrara. Each grape variety has very precise cultivation and productive characteristics: productivity, yield, ripening, ideal climate, pruning, sensitivity to adversities, resistance to diseases, etc…
The vine of Corvina grape wants a short pruning, has a high vigor, a discreet and regular productivity and is raised with Veronese pergola.
The main characteristics of Corvinone are: it prefers a ventilated climate with a good exposure in hilly areas. It wants a long pruning and, as for Corvina, it is raised with the Veronese pergola.
Rondinella prefers long pruning, has a moderate vigor, a high and regular productivity and is bred with medium expansion pruning, or expanded.
Also this vine has a very high vigor, as the productivity which remains high and regular.
Negrara has a late ripening, a high productivity and vigor and it is always raised with the Veronese pergola technique.